What’s the prevalence of contraindications to Paxlovid amongst hospitalized COVID-19 sufferers?

In a current examine printed in JAMA Community Open, researchers examined the prevalence of contraindications to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (Paxlovid) in hospitalized coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) sufferers.

Examine: Prevalence of Contraindications to Nirmatrelvir-Ritonavir Amongst Hospitalized Sufferers With COVID-19 at Danger for Development to Extreme Illness. Picture Credit score: shutter_o/Shutterstock


The USA Meals and Drug Administration (US-FDA) has enlisted a number of medical contraindications to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. A current examine instructed that these is likely to be extra prevalent in COVID-19 sufferers at excessive threat for development to extreme illness.

Scientific trials have proven that Paxlovid therapy reduces the danger of hospitalization and demise in most high-risk sufferers due to its excessive efficacy versus placebo. Additionally, it’s most popular as a result of it affords the comfort of oral dosing.

Nonetheless, in sure circumstances, Paxlovid needs to be prevented as a result of results of ritonavir. In some sufferers, ritonavir elevates the concentrations of medication extra depending on cytochrome P450, household 3, and subfamily A (CYP3A) (CYP3A) metabolism, as an example, in sufferers with extreme kidney and liver impairments.

In regards to the examine

Within the current examine, researchers enrolled a big cohort of sufferers (63,656 inpatients) with confirmed COVID-19 ascertained by a optimistic reverse transcription–polymerase chain response (RT-PCR) take a look at from 36 Larger Paris College hospitals between January 24, 2020, to November 30, 2021. None of those sufferers had acquired Paxlovid therapy.

Nonetheless, since these sufferers sought hospital admission resulting from COVID-19-related issues, the researchers assumed that the contraindications charge could be excessive in these sufferers.

The first examine consequence was the variety of sufferers with contraindications to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. Subsequent, the researchers decided the proportion of people who died inside 28 days of hospitalization. These sufferers may need wanted one other remedy (not Paxlovid) within the ambulatory setting.

Moreover, the staff stratified the examine evaluation by gender, age (lower than or older than 65 years), and comorbidities amongst these sufferers.

The examine adopted Strengthening The Reporting of Observational Research in Epidemiology (STROBE) tips and acquired approval from the institutional overview board (IRB) of the Help Publique–Hôpitaux de Paris medical knowledge warehouse.

Examine findings

Solely 62,525 COVID-19 inpatients met the examine standards, of which 9136 (14.6%) had a medical contraindication to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. The examine inhabitants comprised 31,561 girls [50.5%], and the imply age of the individuals was 52.8 years. The researchers famous that medical contraindication charges to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir had been greater in males than girls (18% vs. 11.3%). Likewise, these charges had been greater in older sufferers than younger sufferers (26.9% vs. 8.8%) and other people with comorbidities vis-a-vis these with no comorbidities (>37% vs. 3.9%).

Notably, ~50% (2463 of 4861) of sufferers who died resulting from COVID-19 additionally had a contraindication to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir. In these sufferers, the charges had been related in women and men, older and youthful sufferers, however greater in sufferers with versus with out comorbidities. Notably, essentially the most prevalent contraindications within the examine cohort had been extreme kidney impairment and the usage of drugs depending on the CYP3A gene for clearance.


The present examine findings increase considerations that medical contraindications to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir may need confounded the outcomes of observational research. Such research may need, thus, overestimated Paxlovid’s therapy efficacy, particularly if that they had not excluded sufferers with contraindications to this therapy. Actually, a number of the contraindicated drugs needs to be placed on maintain (quickly) within the context of utilizing Paxlovid.

Nonetheless, in settlement with prior research, the present examine additionally discovered medical contradictions to nirmatrelvir-ritonavir in people hospitalized with COVID-19.

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